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Pavingstone Installation Guide

These instructions are intended to be a basic guide. 

MATERIALS NEEDED:

  • Stone Base- Should be 3/4" modified stone, also known as 2A or 3/4" quarry blend. Keep in mind to add 5-10% for edges and other miscellaneous areas.

  • Bedding Sand- Coarse concrete sand is recommended. We suggest you include an extra 5% for jointing sand.

  • Pavers- Usually sold by the square foot.

  • Paver Restraint- All exposed installation edges must be restrained.

TOOLS NEEDED:

  • Stakes, string & line level
  • Shovel, metal rake & wide blade mason chisel
  • 3-5 pound hammer
  • Stiff bristle street broom
  • Wheelbarrow
  • Tape measure & level
  • 1" diameter sand screed guides (PVC)
  • 6-8ft, 2 x 4 or 2 x 6
  • 3-5 HP vibrating plate compactor
  • Power saw with diamond blade

MEASURING SITE:
Determined the square footage (length x width=square feet) of the area. Add 5-10% extra pavers that might be needed. Be sure to measure the linear feet of all edges not up against a permanent structure, such as a house, etc. Sketch a plan showing all important dimensions and mark the outline of your installation with stakes every 4-6 feet and at each corner. These stakes should be set 8" outside of the planned edge.

EXCAVATE:
ImageGenerally, a minimum of 4" compacted aggregate base is recommended for patios and walkways, and 8" for residential driveways where freeze/thaw conditions exist. Add 3" for the depth of the bedding sand and the paver thickness to determine the total depth to excavate. Please note that excavation should be 6" wider than the finished pavers dimensions on sides where the paver restraint will be used.

Slope and grade are important to ensure proper runoff. It is suggested to plan at least a 1/4" per foot drop, but try not to exceed 1/2" per foot.

Before digging, always call your local utility companies to locate any underground lines.


PREPARING BASE:

Probably the most important part of the installation process. First, run the plate compactor over the excavated area. Each pass should overlap the prior one by about 4". Compaction should be performed in one direction then a second time at the opposite direction to the first compaction.

Spread your stone base material out evenly in a 2" layer. Starting around the outer perimeter, use the plate compactor to pack to together the base, again overlapping each pass about 4" and working toward the center. Try to make at least two complete passes for each layer. Repeat this process for each subsequent layer of base material until the final thickness is achieved.

When finished, the base should be very smooth and flat and reflect the final grade of the pavers.

SAND BEDDING LAYER:
Keep the sand dry. It is recommended that you only screed sand for areas where you will be laying pavers the same day. Do not attempt to level any areas or surface irregularities with the sand, doing this will result in an uneven surface and unwanted settling.

Image Lay the screed guides on top of the compacted base material 4' - 6' apart and parallel. Evenly distribute a quantity of bedding sand between the guides and drag the 6-8ft, 2 x 4 or 2 x 6 over the guides to create a smooth, even layer of sand striking off any excess. When the pavers are set on the sand and compacted, the 1" of sand will compress to 1/2" to 5/8" thickness. Do not walk on or work from the screeded sand. Fill voids left by the screed guides with sand and trowel them smooth as you are laying the pavers.

 

LAY PAVERS ON LEVELED SAND:
Image Since cubes of products may contain different predominance of color, we recommend that product be selected randomly for several cubes during installation to obtain uniform distribution of color.

Image All projects must start from a perfect 90 degree angle. Use the 3-4-5 triangle method to establish this. Starting from a permanent edge such as a house, driveway, or even a rigid PVC edge restraint, lay your first paver starting from either side. As you start laying pavers, work from right to left, then left to right and so on, one row at a time, setting the pavers lightly onto the sand without pressing or hammering them in. Every four feet or so, run a string across the front of the laying edge to maintain straight lines. Cover the entire area with plastic overnight if rain is expected.

 

CUT PAVERS TO FIT:
Image Mark any stones to be cut and use either a diamond blade wet saw (recommended), a paver splitter or a hammer and chisel. Try to keep cut pieces along the edges to a size at least that of one half paver. (Always wear safety glasses).

 

 

 

INSTALL PAVER RESTRAINT:
Image Restrain all edges that are not up against a permanent structure. Any restraint material should rest entirely on the compacted aggregate base.

COMPACT PAVERS:
The pavers should be swept before compacting. Start tamping around the perimeter and working inward, making at least two passes over the pavers. Make the second pass at a 90 degree angle to the first pass.

SWEEP WITH SAND:
Spread joint sand over the pavers, using a stiff bristle street broom. Sweep back & forth over the entire surface until all joints are filled to the top. Start tapping around the perimeter and working inward, making at least two passes over the pavers. Make the second pass at a 90 degree angle to the first pass. This final step will force the sand into the joints of the pavers creating an interlocking pavement. Sweep again as necessary.

SAFETY NOTE: Always use appropriate equipment, incluing safety glasses or goggles and respirators, when splitting, cutting or hammering units.

BULLNOSE PAVER INSTALLATION:
Typically used as stair treads and pool coping applications. Recommended installation options are:

  • Glue down with a high strength flexible adhesive
  • Mortared in place using standard masonry procedures

 

USING FLEXIBLE ADHESIVE:
Usually installed with a 1/2 to 1" overhang, place the bullnose pavers in the area where they will be installed. Using the adhesive manufacturers direction, pick up the pavers and place the continuous adhesive beads on the pavers and carefully returen the pavers to their place, applying pressure.

USING MORTARED INSTALLATION:
Usually installed with a 1/2 to 1" overhang, place the bullnose pavers in the area where they will be installed. Leave a 3/8" gap for the mortar between the paver. Remove the pavers and place an appropriate thickness of mortar on the material to which they are being affixed to and carefully return the pavers to their place, applying pressure. Fill the joints between the pavers with mortarm being careful to avoid getting mortar on the paver surface.


 
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